😺 Understanding Feline Reproduction: How Do Cats Mate? 😺

😺 Understanding Feline Reproduction: How Do Cats Mate? 😺

Welcome to my vet blog! As an experienced feline veterinarian, I'm often asked by cat owners to explain how cats reproduce and mate. It's important for pet parents to understand their cat's reproductive cycles and behaviors. In this comprehensive guide, I'll walk you through everything you need to know about feline reproduction, from going into heat to mating behaviors to pregnancy and birthing. Let's dive in!

Going Into Heat: The Feline Estrous Cycle

Cats reach sexual maturity around 6-10 months old. Unlike humans who have a menstrual cycle, cats have an estrous cycle - aka going into heat. 😻 This is when they are fertile and ready to mate.

The feline estrous cycle lasts 2-3 weeks on average and occurs seasonally, typically in the spring and summer months. However, some cats will go into heat year-round. Here are the stages of a cat's heat cycle:


This initial stage lasts 1-2 days. The cat's reproductive tract starts preparing for pregnancy. You may notice behavioral changes like your cat being more affectionate and vocal.


This is the breeding stage that lasts 5-10 days. The cat ovulates and is fertile during this time. You'll notice significant behavioral changes like loud yowling, restless activity, decreased appetite, and attempts to escape outdoors to find a mate.


This brief 1-2 day stage is the transition between the end of estrus and the start of the next proestrus phase. The cat is no longer fertile. Behavior returns to normal.


This is a period of reproductive inactivity between heat cycles lasting 1-3 weeks. Hormone levels are low and the cat has no interest in mating.

As you can see, a cat in heat exhibits obvious behavioral and physical signs. Track your cat's cycles on a calendar to anticipate when she may go into heat next. Most cats go into heat every 2-3 weeks during breeding season. Spaying your cat will stop this cycle permanently.

Feline Mating Behaviors and Rituals

When female cats go into estrus, they are driven to find a mate and will demonstrate some fascinating mating behaviors. Here's what to expect:

Rubbing and Rolling

Cats have scent glands around their face, tail and hindquarters. Your female will rub against furniture, walls, and people's legs to spread her scent and signal her reproductive status. She'll also roll around on the floor.


Expect very loud, frequent yowling and meowing, especially at night. This vocalization alerts potential mates of her presence and readiness to breed.

Affection and Purring

Your normally aloof cat may suddenly become very affectionate, rubbing against you and purring loudly. This tactile behavior deposits her scent on you to signal she's in heat.

Hind Leg Treading

She may tread her hind legs against the floor while raising and moving her tail. This mimics the motion of mating and attracts potential partners.

Mounting Objects or People

She may attempt to mount objects, furniture, or even your leg! This shows her urge to mate. Make sure to redirect this behavior gently.


To find male cats, she'll try bolting out doors and windows. Carefully monitor exits to ensure she can't escape and get pregnant.

Decreased Appetite

Due to her single-minded urge to mate, she may eat less. Try tempting her with tasty treats.

Excessive Grooming

She'll spend more time grooming her genitals to prepare for mating. This overgrooming can cause hair loss and irritation. Separate male cats and distract her with playtime.

Attracting Males

Intact male cats will howl, fight, and roam widely in response to a female in heat. Keep your windows closed so neighborhood tomcats aren't attracted.

These behaviors all serve the purpose of advertising to males that your female is fertile and ready to breed. As a responsible pet owner, make sure your cat is indoors and away from intact males during this time.

The Mating Process from Start to Finish

If an intact male and female cat are allowed to mate, here is how the process unfolds:

1. Courtship

The male suitor will approach the female when he detects her heat pheromones. He rubs, sniffs, and licks the female to determine if she is ready. The female will allow this inspection and rub against the male.

2. Mounting

When she's receptive, the female cat assumes the mating position - with front elbows and chest lowered to the ground while hindquarters are raised. The male will mount her from behind, tread his back legs against her flanks, then intromit and ejaculate.

3. Copulation

The actual copulation only lasts 3-5 seconds! Cats are induced ovulators, meaning the female cat ovulates after successful mating. This triggers the release of eggs down the oviducts.

4. Completion

The mating pair will separate. The female often screams loudly and becomes aggressive towards the male once the mating session is complete. She may also groom her vulva region.

5. Additional Mating

The couple will usually mate multiple times within the 3-10 day estrus period to increase chances of fertilization. The male cat's barbed penis stimulates ovulation in the female.

6. Pregnancy

If the female cat mates successfully while in estrus, she will usually become pregnant with a litter of kittens. Cat pregnancy lasts an average of 63-65 days.

I hope this overview gives you a better idea of how intimate acts occur between felines. While fascinating, I always recommend spaying females before their first heat cycle and neutering males by 6 months to prevent unwanted litters.

Signs Your Cat May Be Pregnant

If you suspect your unspayed female cat mated while in heat, watch for these signs of pregnancy in the coming weeks:

  • Pink or swollen nipples - occurs 1-2 weeks after mating

  • Weight gain and enlarged, distended abdomen

  • Increased appetite and less interest in mating

  • Behavior changes like seeking seclusion and becoming less active

  • Enlarged mammary glands within the last third of pregnancy

  • Nesting behaviors like shredding fabric and blankets for a nursery

Schedule a vet exam to confirm the pregnancy and estimate how far along she is. X-rays and ultrasounds can check for kittens near the end of term. Let your vet know immediately so you can prepare for the pending cat birth.

Caring for a Pregnant Cat

If your cat is expecting kittens, here are some tips for proper prenatal care:

  • Feed a high-quality kitten diet for added protein and calories

  • Ensure she is strictly indoors and comfortable in a quiet area

  • Have a nesting box lined with soft bedding available by week 8

  • Limit stress and changes to her routine to avoid early labor

  • Gently brush and groom her belly and mammary glands

  • Take her to the vet for an exam, nutrition plan, and to estimate delivery date

With the right care, your pregnant queen can have a smooth gestation and birth. Be ready for the big day! Kittens are born after 63-65 days of pregnancy.

Preparing for the Kitten Birth

As your cat's due date approaches, prepare for the pending kitten delivery:

  • Have a secluded, warm nesting area available

  • Gather supplies like towels, cotton swabs, dental floss, and heating pad

  • Keep emergency vet contacts on hand in case she has birthing trouble

  • Look for signs of labor starting like restlessness and nesting instincts

  • Once labor begins, check on her but allow privacy during delivery

  • Be ready to clear mucus/membranes from kitten's mouth and nose

  • Tie off umbilical cords and weigh/sex kittens after birth

  • Make sure all placentas are delivered and watch for post-birth bleeding

With preparation, attentive monitoring, and veterinary assistance if needed, your new cat mom can have a smooth kitten birthing process. Enjoy the new litter!

When Should Cats Be Spayed or Neutered?

While cat mating behaviors are interesting, most vets recommend spaying females before 6 months and neutering males before sexual maturity to prevent unwanted litters. Here are the ideal age guidelines:

😺 Spaying: 5-6 months, prior to first heat cycle

😺 Neutering: 5-6 months old

There are many benefits to spay/neuter including:

  • Prevents pregnancy and heat cycles

  • Controls roaming and territorial behaviors

  • Reduces risk of reproductive cancers later in life

  • Can resolve some behavior issues like spraying and aggression

Discuss the ideal timing with your veterinarian. Early spay/neuter ensures your cats don't contribute to cat overpopulation. There are already so many kitties needing homes!

I hope this comprehensive guide gave you insight into the fascinating process of feline reproduction and mating rituals. As a cat owner, the best thing you can do is get your pet spayed or neutered at the right age. This allows your cat to live a happy and healthy life without the stresses of heat cycles, pregnancy, and mating behaviors. Let me know if you have any other cat care questions!

Relevant Links:

😻 Should You Spay or Neuter Your Cat?

😻 Feline Pregnancy Care Tips

😻 Signs Your Cat is Ready to Give Birth

😻 How to Care for Newborn Kittens

Let me know if you have any other feline reproduction questions! This is Dr. Mitun Sarkar at bdvets.com signing off for now.